Extracellular vesicles produced by primary human keratinocytes in response to TLR agonists induce stimulus-specific responses in antigen-presenting cells.

Papayannakos, Christopher J, DeVoti, James A, Israr, Mohd, Alsudani, Habeeb, Bonagura, Vincent, Steinberg, Bettie M (July 2021) Extracellular vesicles produced by primary human keratinocytes in response to TLR agonists induce stimulus-specific responses in antigen-presenting cells. Cellular Signalling, 83. p. 109994. ISSN 0898-6568

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33781846
DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.109994

Abstract

Cells can communicate through the extracellular vesicles (EVs) they secrete. Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), alter the biophysical and communicative properties of EVs released from cells, but the functional consequences of these changes are unknown. Characterization of keratinocyte-derived EVs after poly(I:C) treatment (poly(I:C)-EVs) showed slight differences in levels of EV markers TSG101 and Alix, a loss of CD63 and were positive for autophagosome marker LC3b-II and the cytokine IL36γ compared to EVs from unstimulated keratinocytes (control-EVs). Flagellin treatment (flagellin-EVs) led to an EV marker profile like control-EVs but lacked LC3b-II. Flagellin-EVs also lacked IL-36γ despite nearly identical intracellular levels. While poly(I:C) treatment led to the clear emergence of a > 200 nm diameter EV sub-population, these were not found in flagellin-EVs. EV associated IL-36γ colocalized with LC3b-II in density gradient analysis, equilibrating to 1.10 g/mL, indicating a common EV species. Poly(I:C), but not flagellin, induced intracellular vesicles positive for IL-36γ, LC3b-II, Alix and TSG101, consistent with fusion of autophagosomes and multivesicular bodies. Simultaneous rapamycin and flagellin treatment induced similar intracellular vesicles but was insufficient for the release of IL-36γ+/LC3b-II+ EVs. Finally, a qRT-PCR array screen showed eight cytokine/chemokine transcripts were altered (p < 0.05) in monocyte-derived Langerhans cells (LCs) when stimulated with poly(I:C)-EVs while three were altered when LCs were stimulated with flagellin-EVs compared to control-EVs. After independent confirmation, poly(I:C)-EVs upregulated BMP6 (p = 0.035) and flagellin-EVs upregulated CXCL8 (p = 0.005), VEGFA (p = 0.018) and PTGS2 (p = 0.020) compared to control-EVs. We conclude that exogenous signals derived from pathogens can alter keratinocyte-mediated modulation of the local immune responses by inducing changes in the types of EVs secreted and responses in antigen presenting cells.

Item Type: Paper
Subjects: organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell functions > cell signaling
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > immune cell
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > immune cell
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > immune cell
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Spector lab
SWORD Depositor: CSHL Elements
Depositing User: CSHL Elements
Date: July 2021
Date Deposited: 27 May 2021 13:11
Last Modified: 27 May 2021 13:12
PMCID: PMC8091864
Related URLs:
URI: https://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/40173

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