Small RNA silencing pathways in germ and stem cells

Aravin, A. A., Hannon, G. J. (2008) Small RNA silencing pathways in germ and stem cells. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 73. pp. 283-90. ISSN 1943-4456 (Electronic)0091-7451 (Linking)

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URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19270082
DOI: 10.1101/sqb.2008.73.058

Abstract

During the past several years, it has become clear that small RNAs guard germ cell genomes from the activity of mobile genetic elements. Indeed, in mammals, a class of small RNAs, known as Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), forms an innate immune system that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes and selectively silences the former. piRNAs enforce silencing by directing transposon DNA methylation during male germ cell development. As such, piRNAs represent perhaps the only currently known sequence-specific factor for deposition of methylcytosine in mammals. The three mammalian Piwi proteins Miwi2, Mili, and Miwi are required at different stages of germ cell development. Moreover, distinct classes of piRNAs are expressed in developmental waves, with particular generative loci and different sequence content distinguishing piRNAs populations in embryonic germ cells from those that appear during meiosis. Although our understanding of Piwi proteins and piRNA biology have deepened substantially during the last several years, major gaps still exist in our understanding of these enigmatic RNA species.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals Female Germ Cells/ metabolism Male Mammals MicroRNAs/genetics RNA Interference RNA, Small Interfering/ genetics Stem Cells/ metabolism
Subjects: bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types

organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > germ cell
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > germ cell
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > cell types and functions > cell types > germ cell

bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > piRNA
therapies > stem cells
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Hannon lab
Depositing User: Matt Covey
Date: 2008
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2013 16:53
Last Modified: 14 Jan 2013 22:04
PMCID: NLM
Related URLs:
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/26451

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