Evolutionary constraints associated with functional specificity of the CMGC protein kinases MAPK, CDK, GSK, SRPK, DYRK, and CK2alpha

Kannan, N., Neuwald, A. F. (August 2004) Evolutionary constraints associated with functional specificity of the CMGC protein kinases MAPK, CDK, GSK, SRPK, DYRK, and CK2alpha. Protein Sci, 13 (8). pp. 2059-77. ISSN 0961-8368 (Print)

URL: http://www.proteinscience.org/cgi/content/abstract...
DOI: 10.1110/ps.04637904

Abstract

Amino acid residues associated with functional specificity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), glycogen synthase kinases (GSKs), and CDK-like kinases (CLKs), which are collectively termed the CMGC group, were identified by categorizing and quantifying the selective constraints acting upon these proteins during evolution. Many constraints specific to CMGC kinases correspond to residues between the N-terminal end of the activation segment and a CMGC-conserved insert segment associated with coprotein binding. The strongest such constraint is imposed on a "CMGC-arginine" near the substrate phosphorylation site with a side chain that plays a role both in substrate recognition and in kinase activation. Two nearby buried waters, which are also present in non-CMGC kinases, typically position the main chain of this arginine relative to the catalytic loop. These and other CMGC-specific features suggest a structural linkage between coprotein binding, substrate recognition, and kinase activation. Constraints specific to individual subfamilies point to mechanisms for CMGC kinase specialization. Within casein kinase 2alpha (CK2alpha), for example, the binding of one of the buried waters appears prohibited by the side chain of a leucine that is highly conserved within CK2alpha and that, along with substitution of lysine for the CMGC-arginine, may contribute to the broad substrate specificity of CK2alpha by relaxing characteristically conserved, precise interactions near the active site. This leucine is replaced by a conserved isoleucine or valine in other CMGC kinases, thereby illustrating the potential functional significance of subtle amino acid substitutions. Analysis of other CMGC kinases similarly suggests candidate family-specific residues for experimental follow-up.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Binding Sites Evolution Molecular Humans Molecular Sequence Data Protein Kinases chemistry Protein Structure Tertiary Sequence Alignment Sequence Analysis Protein Substrate Specificity
Subjects: bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > protein structure, function, modification > protein types > enzymes > kinase
CSHL Authors:
Depositing User: CSHL Librarian
Date: August 2004
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2012 16:11
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2012 16:11
PMCID: PMC2279817
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/22407

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