Endogenous Retroviruses Walk a Fine Line between Priming and Silencing

Cullen, H., Schorn, A. J. (July 2020) Endogenous Retroviruses Walk a Fine Line between Priming and Silencing. Viruses, 12 (8). p. 792. ISSN 1999-4915

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URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32718022
DOI: 10.3390/v12080792

Abstract

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in mammals are closely related to infectious retroviruses and utilize host tRNAs as a primer for reverse transcription and replication, a hallmark of long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements. Their dependency on tRNA makes these elements vulnerable to targeting by small RNAs derived from the 3'-end of mature tRNAs (3'-tRFs), which are highly expressed during epigenetic reprogramming and potentially protect many tissues in eukaryotes. Here, we review some key functions of ERV reprogramming during mouse and human development and discuss how small RNA-mediated silencing maintains genome stability when ERVs are temporarily released from heterochromatin repression. In particular, we take a closer look at the tRNA primer binding sites (PBS) of two highly active ERV families in mice and their sequence variation that is shaped by the conflict of successful tRNA priming for replication versus evasion of silencing by 3'-tRFs.

Item Type: Paper
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Schorn lab
SWORD Depositor: CSHL Elements
Depositing User: CSHL Elements
Date: 23 July 2020
Date Deposited: 08 Feb 2021 15:20
Last Modified: 15 Mar 2021 18:15
PMCID: PMC7472051
Related URLs:
URI: https://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/39894

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