Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs

Freedman, A. H., Gronau, I., Schweizer, R. M., Ortega-Del Vecchyo, D., Han, E., Silva, P. M., Galaverni, M., Fan, Z., Marx, P., Lorente-Galdos, B., Beale, H., Ramirez, O., Hormozdiari, F., Alkan, C., Vila, C., Squire, K., Geffen, E., Kusak, J., Boyko, A. R., Parker, H. G., Lee, C., Tadigotla, V., Siepel, A., Bustamante, C. D., Harkins, T. T., Nelson, S. F., Ostrander, E. A., Marques-Bonet, T., Wayne, R. K., Novembre, J. (2014) Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs. PLoS Genetics, 10 (1). e1004016. ISSN 15537390 (ISSN)

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URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24453982
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016

Abstract

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: Amylases/*genetics Animals Animals, Domestic/*genetics DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics Dogs *Evolution, Molecular Genetic Variation Phylogeny Population Density Wolves/classification/genetics
Subjects: bioinformatics
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > genomes
Investigative techniques and equipment > assays > whole genome sequencing
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Siepel lab
Depositing User: Matt Covey
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2015 15:14
Last Modified: 15 Jan 2015 15:14
PMCID: PMC3894170
Related URLs:
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/31060

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