Rho GTPases and signaling networks

Van Aelst, L., D'Souza-Schorey, C. (1997) Rho GTPases and signaling networks. Genes and Development, 11 (18). pp. 2295-322. ISSN 08909369 (ISSN)

[img]
Preview
PDF
VanAeist_GenesDev1997.pdf

Download (393Kb) | Preview
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9308960
DOI: 10.1101/gad.11.18.2295

Abstract

The Rho GTPases form a subgroup of the Ras superfamily of 20- to 30-kD GTP-binding proteins that have been shown to regulate a wide spectrum of cellular functions. These proteins are ubiquitously expressed across the species, from yeast to man. The mammalian Rho-like GTPases comprise at least 10 distinct proteins: RhoA, B, C, D, and E; Rac1 and 2; RacE; Cdc42Hs, and TC10. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of the Rho proteins from various species has revealed that they are conserved in primary structure and are 50%–55% homologous to each other. Like all members of the Ras superfamily, the Rho GTPases function as molecular switches, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. Until recently, members of the Rho subfamily were believed to be involved primarily in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization in response to extracellular growth factors. However, research from a number of laboratories over the past few years has revealed that the Rho GTPases play crucial roles in diverse cellular events such as membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, cell growth control, and development. Consequently, a major challenge has been to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the Rho GTPases mediate these various activities. Many targets of the Rho GTPases have now been identified and further characterization of some of them has provided major insights toward our understanding of Rho GTPase function at the molecular level. This review aims to summarize the general established principles about the Rho GTPases and some of the more recent exciting findings, hinting at novel, unanticipated functions of the Rho GTPases.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals GTP Phosphohydrolases/ physiology GTP-Binding Proteins/physiology Humans Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Signal Transduction ras Proteins/ physiology
Subjects: bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > protein structure, function, modification > protein types > G protein > Rho
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > protein structure, function, modification > protein types > GTP binding protein
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > protein structure, function, modification > protein types > G protein > Ras
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > tissues types and functions > signal transduction
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Van Aelst lab
Depositing User: Kathleen Darby
Date Deposited: 07 May 2014 19:11
Last Modified: 07 May 2014 19:11
Related URLs:
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/30010

Actions (login required)

Administrator's edit/view item Administrator's edit/view item
CSHL HomeAbout CSHLResearchEducationNews & FeaturesCampus & Public EventsCareersGiving