ZmCCT and the genetic basis of day-length adaptation underlying the postdomestication spread of maize

Hung, H. Y., Shannon, L. M., Tian, F., Bradbury, P. J., Chen, C., Flint-Garcia, S. A., McMullen, M. D., Ware, D., Buckler, E. S., Doebley, J. F., Holland, J. B. (July 2012) ZmCCT and the genetic basis of day-length adaptation underlying the postdomestication spread of maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (28). E1913-E1921. ISSN 0027-8424

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URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711828
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1203189109

Abstract

Teosinte, the progenitor of maize, is restricted to tropical environments in Mexico and Central America. The pre-Columbian spread of maize from its center of origin in tropical Southern Mexico to the higher latitudes of the Americas required postdomestication selection for adaptation to longer day lengths. Flowering time of teosinte and tropical maize is delayed under long day lengths, whereas temperate maize evolved a reduced sensitivity to photoperiod. We measured flowering time of the maize nested association and diverse association mapping panels in the field under both short and long day lengths, and of a maize-teosinte mapping population under long day lengths. Flowering time in maize is a complex trait affected by many genes and the environment. Photoperiod response is one component of flowering time involving a subset of flowering time genes whose effects are strongly influenced by day length. Genome-wide association and targeted high-resolution linkage mapping identified ZmCCT, a homologue of the rice photoperiod response regulator Ghd7, as the most important gene affecting photoperiod response in maize. Under long day lengths ZmCCT alleles from diverse teosintes are consistently expressed at higher levels and confer later flowering than temperate maize alleles. Many maize inbred lines, including some adapted to tropical regions, carry ZmCCT alleles with no sensitivity to day length. Indigenous farmers of the Americas were remarkably successful at selecting on genetic variation at key genes affecting the photoperiod response to create maize varieties adapted to vastly diverse environments despite the hindrance of the geographic axis of the Americas and the complex genetic control of flowering time.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: genetic diversity quantitative trait locus association mapping population quantitative trait loci genome-wide association flowering-time photoperiod sensitivity domestication regulator architecture protein expression
Subjects: bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing
organism description > plant > maize
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > genes, structure and function
organism description > plant
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Ware lab
Depositing User: Matt Covey
Date: 10 July 2012
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2013 21:11
Last Modified: 22 Dec 2017 17:15
PMCID: PMC3396540
Related URLs:
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/26967

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