Role of transposable elements in heterochromatin and epigenetic control

Lippman, Z., Gendrel, A. V., Black, M., Vaughn, M. W., Dedhia, N., McCombie, W. R., Lavine, K., Mittal, V., May, B., Kasschau, K. D., Carrington, J. C., Doerge, R. W., Colot, V., Martienssen, R. (2004) Role of transposable elements in heterochromatin and epigenetic control. Nature, 430 (6998). pp. 471-6. ISSN 1476-4687 (Electronic)

URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269773
DOI: 10.1038/nature02651

Abstract

Heterochromatin has been defined as deeply staining chromosomal material that remains condensed in interphase, whereas euchromatin undergoes de-condensation. Heterochromatin is found near centromeres and telomeres, but interstitial sites of heterochromatin (knobs) are common in plant genomes and were first described in maize. These regions are repetitive and late-replicating. In Drosophila, heterochromatin influences gene expression, a heterochromatin phenomenon called position effect variegation. Similarities between position effect variegation in Drosophila and gene silencing in maize mediated by "controlling elements" (that is, transposable elements) led in part to the proposal that heterochromatin is composed of transposable elements, and that such elements scattered throughout the genome might regulate development. Using microarray analysis, we show that heterochromatin in Arabidopsis is determined by transposable elements and related tandem repeats, under the control of the chromatin remodelling ATPase DDM1 (Decrease in DNA Methylation 1). Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) correspond to these sequences, suggesting a role in guiding DDM1. We also show that transposable elements can regulate genes epigenetically, but only when inserted within or very close to them. This probably accounts for the regulation by DDM1 and the DNA methyltransferase MET1 of the euchromatic, imprinted gene FWA, as its promoter is provided by transposable-element-derived tandem repeats that are associated with siRNAs.

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: Arabidopsis genetics Arabidopsis Proteins genetics Chromosomes Plant genetics Cluster Analysis DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase metabolism DNA Methylation DNA Transposable Elements genetics DNA-Binding Proteins genetics metabolism Epigenesis Genetic genetics Gene Expression Regulation Plant Genomic Imprinting Heterochromatin genetics Homeodomain Proteins genetics Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis RNA Small Interfering genetics metabolism Tandem Repeat Sequences genetics Transcription Factors genetics metabolism
Subjects: organism description > animal > insect > Drosophila
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > Chromatin dynamics > heterochromatin
CSHL Authors:
Communities: CSHL labs > Lippman lab
CSHL labs > Martienssen lab
CSHL labs > McCombie lab
CSHL labs > Mittal lab
Watson School > Publications
Depositing User: CSHL Librarian
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2012 18:03
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2014 15:02
Related URLs:
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/22424

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