Visualization of early chromosome condensation: a hierarchical folding, axial glue model of chromosome structure

Kireeva, N., Lakonishok, M., Kireev, I., Hirano, T., Belmont, A. S. (2004) Visualization of early chromosome condensation: a hierarchical folding, axial glue model of chromosome structure. Journal of Cell Biology, 166 (6). pp. 775-785. ISSN 0021-9525

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URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcg...
DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200406049

Abstract

Current models of mitotic chromosome structure are based largely on the examination of maximally condensed metaphase chromosomes. Here, we test these models by correlating the distribution of two scaffold components with the appearance of prophase chromosome folding intermediates. We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase IIalpha and the condensin subunit, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), in unextracted metaphase chromosomes, with SMC2 localizing to a 150-200-nm-diameter central core. In contrast to predictions of radial loop/scaffold models, this axial distribution does not appear until late prophase, after formation of uniformly condensed middle prophase chromosomes. Instead, SMC2 associates throughout early and middle prophase chromatids, frequently forming foci over the chromosome exterior. Early prophase condensation occurs through folding of large-scale chromatin fibers into condensed masses. These resolve into linear, 200-300-nm-diameter middle prophase chromatids that double in diameter by late prophase. We propose a unified model of chromosome structure in which hierarchical levels of chromatin folding are stabilized late in mitosis by an axial "glue".

Item Type: Paper
Uncontrolled Keywords: chromosome structure condensins topoisomerase II mitosis SNIC TOPOISOMERASE-II-ALPHA Toploisomerase II Alpha Toploisomerase-II-Alpha MITOTIC CHROMOSOME mitotic chromasome CELL-CYCLE cell cycle METAPHASE metaphase CHROMOSOMES chromosomes ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY electron microscopy PROTEIN protein ORGANIZATION organization ARCHITECTURE arcitecture SCAFFOLD scaffold LOCALIZATION localization
Subjects: bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > chromosome
bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > chromosomes, structure and function > chromosome

bioinformatics > genomics and proteomics > genetics & nucleic acid processing > DNA, RNA structure, function, modification > metaphase
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions > organelles, types and functions > mitosis
CSHL Authors:
Depositing User: CSHL Librarian
Date: September 2004
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2012 17:01
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2012 17:01
PMCID: PMC2172117
URI: http://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/22413

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